Investment banking is a special segment of banking operation that helps individuals or organizations raise capital and provide financial consultancy services to them. They act as intermediaries between security issuers and investors and help new firms to go public. They either buy all the available shares at a price estimated by their experts and resell them to public or sell shares on behalf of the issuer and take commission on each share.
Ultimately, investment banks serve as middlemen between a company and investors when the company wants to issue stock or bonds. The investment bank assists with pricing financial instruments to maximize revenue and with navigating regulatory requirements. Often, when a company holds its initial public offering (IPO), an investment bank will buy all or much of that company’s shares directly from the company. However, as a proxy for the company holding the IPO, the investment bank will sell the shares on the market. This makes things much easier for the company itself, as they effectively contract out the IPO to the investment bank. Moreover, the investment bank stands to make a profit, as it will generally price its shares at a markup from the price it initially paid. Yet, in doing so the investment bank also takes on a substantial amount of risk. Though experienced analysts at the investment bank use their expertise to accurately price the stock as best they can, the investment bank can lose money on the deal if it turns out they have overvalued the stock, as in this case they will often have to sell the stock for less than they initially paid for it.
Investment banks help individuals and companies raise capital. Investment banking is a good route to go if you are an entrepreneur or if you want to run your own company. Investment banking can be very risky but it can be very beneficial in the end.