Investment banking is a specific division of banking related to the creation of capital for other companies, governments and other entities. Investment banks underwrite new debt and equity securities for all types of corporations, aid in the sale of securities, and help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganizations and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.
Some of the earliest investment banking practices began in Europe. During the 12th and 13th centuries, European banks made long-terms loans to various rulers. In the 1300’s, Florence, Italy was a banking hub. King Edward III borrowed vast sums of money from the great banks of Florence to fund his war with France. He could not pay the money back, and the three biggest banks in Florence collapsed.
During the 18th century, intermediaries bought government-issued debt and then resold it to investors at a profit. This process soon spread to the United States, where investment bankers quickly copied the practice.
In the early 19th century, the financing of US railroads was dependent upon this investment method, which involved mainly investors overseas as well as wealthy US traders and ship owners. This lead to the grow of investment banking in the U.S. as well as in Europe.
The investment banking industry is still experiencing many changes today. There have been many crisis’s in American history because of little regulation on banks. The government’s monetary policy and regulation of investment banking continually evolves as a result of these panics. Today, investment banks in the United States are continuously reviewed and regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. They are also intermittently regulated and investigated by Congress. This helps keep it safe for everyone so that history does not repeat itself. It will also help to avoid another panic to happen in the U.S.
Throughout American history there have been various banking crisis’s. A banking crisis usually refers to a situation in a general “market adjustment” when faith in banking institutions falls, and people start trying to move their money to other places for safe keeping. This is called a “run on the banks.” This article will take you through a few of the banking panics that have happened in U.S. history.
Panic of 1873
The Panic of 1873 began with the failure of a prominent investment firm located in Philadelphia called Jay Cooke and Company. The firm was the principal backer of the Northern Pacific Railroad and had handled most of the government’s wartime loans, using a widespread sales campaign back by advertising to sell bonds to people who had never before owned securities. The company speculated, which means they took a risk to try to make more money. Their speculation failed and the firm went bankrupt, along with several other commercial and investment banks. The stock market closed for 10 days and many businesses were forced to shut down after.
Panic of 1907
The Panic of 1907 was a six-week stretch of runs on banks in New York City and other American cities in October and early November of 1907.It was triggered by a failed speculation that caused the bankruptcy of two brokerage firms. One of those failed speculations came from F.A. Heinz who tried to manipulate the price of a company’s shares. When his attempt failed, the stock market crashed, causing a panic. This also led to “runs” on banks across the nation. In other words, businesses and individuals all tried to withdraw their money at the same time. This run caused banks to collapse, the stock market to crash, and businesses to fail. This is what created a recession in the start of June in 1907.
Stock Market Crash of 1929
The stock market crash of 1929, also called the Great Crash , was a sharp decline in U.S. stock market values began on Black Tuesday on October 29, 1929. It contributed to the Great Depression of the 1930’s. The Great Depression lasted approximately 10 years and affected both industrialized and non industrialized countries in many parts of the world.
Investment banking is a special segment of banking operation that helps individuals or organizations raise capital and provide financial consultancy services to them. They act as intermediaries between security issuers and investors and help new firms to go public. They either buy all the available shares at a price estimated by their experts and resell them to public or sell shares on behalf of the issuer and take commission on each share.
Ultimately, investment banks serve as middlemen between a company and investors when the company wants to issue stock or bonds. The investment bank assists with pricing financial instruments to maximize revenue and with navigating regulatory requirements. Often, when a company holds its initial public offering (IPO), an investment bank will buy all or much of that company’s shares directly from the company. However, as a proxy for the company holding the IPO, the investment bank will sell the shares on the market. This makes things much easier for the company itself, as they effectively contract out the IPO to the investment bank. Moreover, the investment bank stands to make a profit, as it will generally price its shares at a markup from the price it initially paid. Yet, in doing so the investment bank also takes on a substantial amount of risk. Though experienced analysts at the investment bank use their expertise to accurately price the stock as best they can, the investment bank can lose money on the deal if it turns out they have overvalued the stock, as in this case they will often have to sell the stock for less than they initially paid for it.
Investment banks help individuals and companies raise capital. Investment banking is a good route to go if you are an entrepreneur or if you want to run your own company. Investment banking can be very risky but it can be very beneficial in the end.